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Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Study Material for History of India:SATAVAHANA ACHIEVEMENTS

SATAVAHANA ACHIEVEMENTS

The government if the Satavahana kingdom was organized on the traditional lines. The kingdom was divided into Janapadas, which were further sub-divided into aharas. Each ahara was under an Amataya. The basic unit of the ahara was the grama with the village headman called gamika. Central control was maintained over the provices. Princes were generally made viceroys. And the kings did not assume high-sounding titles. They were expected to maintain dharma.

Taxation was not burden some. The state derived its income from crown lands, court fees, fines and ordinary taxes on lands. The extraordinary taxes of the Mauryan period were not imposed. In general, Central control was not high because feudal traits emerged in the Satavahana period. The feudal chiefs like maharathas mahasenapatis and mahabhojas issued their own coins.

The area under the satavahanas in general witnessed considerable prosperity. There was brisk trade. Broach was the most important port and it had a vast and rich hinterland. Pratishthana produced cotton cloth. Tagara and Ujjain produced muslin. The chief imports were wines, copper, tin, lead and gold and silver coins. Another important port was kalyan mentioned in the Perilus. The other ports were Sopara, Goa and pigeon islands. Within the kingdom there were important cities like Tagara, Prathishthana, Nasik, Junnar and Dhanyakataka. Koddura and Chinnaganjam were the important ports on the east. The general life led by the people was similar to the one portrayed in Vatsayana's Kama-Sutra.

Evidence also shows that a good number of people emigrated from the Deccan to colonize the regions in South-East Asia

The Satavahanas and Shiva were worshiped. Saptasataka reveals the worship of many Hindu deities. Vaishnavasim and Shavism grew popular. Gautamiputra-Satakarni claimed himself to be the protector of brahmins. The Naisk prasasthi states that Varnashrama Dharmawas maintained.

Buddhism too was popular. Both the sakas and Satavahanas encouraged Buddhism. Ushavadata mare several grants to Buddhist monks. Some of these grants were renewed by Guatamiputra Satakarni. Buddhist momuments and stupas came into existence at Nasik, Vidisa, Bhattiprolu, Goli, Ghantasala and Amaravati. It was at the last plece that most probably human figures were carved out for the first time. And the stupa at this place had a marble railing with relief sculptures. A vaijayanti merchant was responsible for enriching Karle and Kanheri Buddhist caves. Merchants from Nasik contributed to the caves at Vidisa and Bharhut. In brief cave architecture and building of stupas witnessed certain development under the auspices of the satavahanas; and the donations or the merchants belonging to the guilds prove the commercial prosperity of the area.

Emcouraged by wealth the kings patronized literature and architecture. Hala was an authority on the Puranas. He was the author of Sapta-Sataka. It is said that Hala paid as much as 40 million pieces of gold for four kavyas. Leelavati deals with the military campaigns of Hala.

The kings encouraged architecture. The five gateways at Sanchi the rock-cut Chaity-halls of Bhaja, Karle, Nasik and Kanheri and the stupas at Amaravati, Bhattiprolu, Goli and Ghantasala were built in this period. The capitals of the pillars in Karle caves are elaborately sculptured. The dome and the base of the Amaravati stupa is elaborately sculptured. Jataka stories were incised on marble slabs. The upper part of the dome is a beautiful floral design. It is generally said that its construction began during the t8ime of Gautamiputra Satakarni and was completed during the time of Yajna Sri Satakarni. Most probably two Ajanta Frescoes (9th and 10th) came into existence during this period.

The satavahanas weregreat excavators of cave temples and the magnificent temples of Ellora and Ajanta were the continuation of the Satavahana tradition to which all Middle Indian dynasties in succeeding ages claimed historic relationship. The basic tradition in Middle India is of the Satavahana empire. As in the north it is of the Mauryan. From the point of view of historic continuity it is important to remember this primary fact as up to quite recent times the traditions flowing from the satavahanas were living factors in Indian history.

Study Material for History of India:Andhra Satavahanas

Andhra Satavahanas

ORIGIN :

(a) Aitrareya Brahmana puts the Adhras beyond the pale of Aryanism.

(b) Nasik Prasasti lays claim to Gautmi as a brahamana.

(c) Puranas called them their services to Aryanism they were - admitted to the Aryan folk after their services to Arynanism - there is a reference to them in the Asoka inscriptions as well as by Megasthenes. 

(d) Some call them Brahmins - some, mixed Brahmins of Naga origin, aqnd some, protectors of Brahmins, 

(e) Numismatic evidence points to the origin in Western Deccan and Madhya Pradesh. Epigraphic and literary evidence points to their western origin - the figure of the founder of the dynasty is found in paition in western Deccan. 

(f) Epigraphic evidence refers to them as Satavahanas, not as Andhras. 

(g) Possibly, Andhra is the Tribal name : Satavahana, the dynastic name, and satakarni, the Surname.

SOURCES :

(a) Puranas - mention 30 kings,.

(b) Aitrareya Brahmina. 

(c) Literary sources -- Gunadhya's Brihatkatha. And Leelavati, which deals with the military exploits of Hala.

(d) Nasik inscription of Gautami Balsari.

(e) Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela for inferring the date of the first ruler. 

(f) Sanchi inscription extent of the Satavahanas kingdom till Malwa.

CHORONOLOGY:

(a) The founder war one Simukha - probably the first century B.C. - supplanted the lingering Sunga and Kanva rulers - rule of the dynasty was for 300 years. Simuka was succeed by Krishna or Kanha.

(b) The next known king was Satakarni - the kingdom expanded - probably defeated by Kharavela - performed Ashvamedha Pratishthana was the capital - confusion after him. Kshaharatas or sakas occupied parts of Maharashtra. 

(c) Hala is the 17th in the list of Puranas - his book is saptasataka - deals with both erortic and philosophical themes. Gundhaya's Brihatkatha deals with the rivalry between Prikrit and Sanskrit. 

(d) Beginning from 25 A.D. to 75 A.D. there was confusion - saka eruption.

(e) The greatest ruler was Gautamiputra Satakarni. He was the 23rd according to Pupranas - around 72 A.D. the Nasik inscription of his mother talks of his being the destroyer of Sakas, Yavanas and Kshaharata - also says that he crushed the pride of Kshatrias - overran konan, Saurashtra, Bihar and Malva. A Philanthropist, he maintained Arya Dharma - put an end to Varna - Sankara - some regard him to be Vikramaditya. Built the city of Benakataka and assumed the titles of Raja Raja and Svamin.

(f) The next known ruler was Pulumayi II around 96 A.D. - first ruled Andhra country - Vaijyanti and Amaravati famous cities - Satavahanas a naval power - probably overseas colonisation - large number of inscription. 

(g) The next know ruler was Vasishtiputra Batakarni of sri Pulumayi - married the daughter of Rudradaman, a Saka ruler -- however Rudradaman twice defeated him. Also, Sri Pulumayi lost to Chastana, son of Bhosmotika. 

(h) Next known ruler was Yajna Sri Satakarni - around 160 A.D. - Malva, Kathiawad and North Konkan - inscription found in Konkan and Krishna - coints found in Gujarat and Kathiawad - defeated Kshatapas. 

(i) After the declined Salankeyanas ruled over the Satavahana territory.

IMPORTANCE :

(1) The Very area over which they ruled was important connecting link between link between northern and southern India - Andhras were instrumental in spreading Aryan culture to the south.

(2) Their colonizing activities spread to South-East Asia - influence of Amaravati sculptures on South-East Asian sculptures.

(3) They did maintain contact between India and the Western world in matters of trade.

(4) They were instrumental in curbing the penetration of Sakas further into south.

(5) Some of the later southern dynastic like Ikshvakus, Kadambas, Tarikutakas and Abhiras continued the Satavahan tradition and the Pallsvas and the Chalukya claimed the tradition of Satavahanas.

Census of India 2011-India at a Glance and Summary

Area :
Area of India : 3,287,240 Sq km.*
Largest StateRajasthan
342,239 Sq km
Smallest StateGoa
3,702 Sq km
Largest Union TerritoryAndaman & Nicobar Islands
8,249 Sq km
Smallest Union TerritoryLakshadweep
32 Sq km
Largest DistrictKachchh (Gujarat)
45,652 Sq km
Smallest DistrictMahe ( Pondicherry )
9 Sq km
* The area figure exclude 78,114 sq. km. under the illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5,180 sq. km. Illegally handed over by Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq.km. under the illegal occupation of China in Ladakh district.

Administrative Divisions :
No. of States
28
No. of Union Territories
7
No. of Districts
593
No. of Sub-districts
5,463
No. of CD Blocks
3,799
No. of Urban Agglomerations / Towns
4,378
No. of Urban Agglomerations
384
No. of Towns
5,161
No. of Inhabited Villages
593,731
No. of Uninhabited Villages
44,656
Population :
Persons1,028,737,436
Males532,223,090
Females 496,514,346
Highest / Lowest Population :
 State with Highest Population
Uttar Pradesh
166,197,921
 State with Lowest Population
Sikkim
540,851
 UT with Highest Population
Delhi
13,850,507
 UT with Lowest Population
Lakshadweep
60,650
 District with Highest Population
Medinipur (West Bengal)
9,610,788 
 District with Lowest Population
Yanam (Pondicherry)
31,394

Note: @ The total population and rural population include estimated population of 127,108 for Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur. India's population without the estimated population of these areas is 1,028,610,328 (532,156,772 males and 496,453,556 females)

Note : - Includes estimated population of Paomata, Mao Maram and Purul Sub-division of Senapati district of Manipur.

Institutional and Houseless Population
 
Percentage to
 
Persons
Total Population (%)
Houseless Population
Total
1,943,766
1.00
 
Rural
1,165,167
0.85
 
Urban
778,599
1.39
Institutional Population
Total
7,802,866
4.03
 
Rural
4,044,152
2.94
 
Urban
3,758,714
6.73
Population Density
 
Persons / Sq. Km
 
India
325
State with Highest Population DensityWest Bengal
903
State with Lowest Population DensityArunachal Pradesh
13
UT with Highest Population DensityDelhi
9,340
UT with Lowest Population DensityAndaman & Nicobar Islands
43
District with Highest Population DensityNorth East (Delhi)
29,468
District with Lowest Population DensityLahul & Spiti (Himachal Pradesh)
2


Rural - Urban Distribution
Population
(%)
Rural
742,490,639
72.2%
Urban
286,119,689
27.8%
State with highest proportion of Urban Population
Goa
 
49.76
State with lowest proportion of Urban Population
Himachal Pradesh
 
9.30
UT with highest proportion of Urban Population
Delhi
 93.18
UT with lowest proportion of Urban Population
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
 22.89

Sex ratio (females per thousand males)
 
India
933
 
Rural
946
 
Urban
900
State with Highest Female Sex RatioKerala
1,058
State with Lowest Female Sex RatioHaryana
861
UT with Highest Female Sex RatioPondicherry
1,001
UT with Lowest Female Sex RatioDaman & Diu
710
District with Highest Female Sex RatioMahe (Pondicherry)
1,147
District with Lowest Female Sex RatioDaman (Daman & Diu)
591

Age Groups
Persons
Males
Females
6 years and below
163,819,614
84,999,203
78,820,411
Proportion to total population (%)
15.9
16.0
15.9
7 to 14 years
199,791,198
104,488,119
95,303,079
Proportion to total population (%)
19.4
19.6
19.2
15 to 59 years
585,638,723
303,400,561
282,238,162
Proportion to total population (%)
56.9
57.0
56.9
60 years and above
76,622,321
37,768,327
38,853,994
Proportion to total population (%)
7.5
7.1
7.8
Age Not Stated
2,738,472
1,500,562
1,237,910
Proportion to total population (%)
0.3
0.3
0.3

Variation in population since 1901
Year
Total
Rural
Urban
1901
238,396,327
212,544,454
25,851,873
1911
252,093,390
226,151,757
25,941,633
1921
251,321,213
223,235,043
28,086,170
1931
278,977,238
245,521,249
33,455,989
1941
318,660,580
274,507,283
44,153,297
1951
361,088,090
298,644,381
62,443,709
1961
439,234,771
360,298,168
78,936,603
1971
548,159,652
439,045,675
109,113,977
1981
683,329,097
523,866,550
159,462,547
1991
846,302,688
628,691,676
217,611,012
2001*
1,028,737,436
742,490,639
286,119,689
Note: * The total population and rural population include estimated population of 127,108 for Mao Maram, Paomata and Purul sub-divisions of Senapati district of Manipur. India's population without the estimated population of these areas is 1,028,610,328 (532,156,772 males and 496,453,556 females)

Number of Literates & Literacy Rate
   
  Persons
  Males
  Females
 Total
No. of literates
560,687,797
336,533,716
224,154,081
  Literacy rate
64.8%
75.3%
53.7%
 Rural
No. of literates
  361,870,817
 223,551,641
138,319,176
  Literacy rate
  58.7%
 70.7%
  46.1%
 Urban
No. of literates
198,816,980
112,982,075
85,834,905
  Literacy rate
79.9%
86.3%
72.9%
 
Persons (%)
Males (%)
Females (%)
 State with Highest Literacy Rate
  Kerala (90.9)
  Kerala (94.2)
  Kerala (87.7)
 State with Lowest Literacy Rate
  Bihar (47.0)
  Bihar (59.7)
  Bihar (33.1)
 UT with Highest Literacy Rate
  Lakshadweep (86.7)
  Lakshadweep (92.5)
  Lakshadweep (80.5)
 UT with Lowest Literacy Rate
  Dadra & Nagar Haveli (57.6)
  Dadra & Nagar Haveli (71.2)
  Dadra & Nagar Haveli (40.2)
 District with Highest Literacy Rate
  Aizwal, Mizoram   (96.5)
  Mahe, Pondicherry (97.6)
  Aizwal, Mizoram  (96.26)
 District with Lowest Literacy Rate
  Dantewada Chhattisgarh (30.17)
  Dantewada Chhattisgarh (39.75)
  Shrawasti UP (7.7)

Number of Districts by Sex-wise Literacy Rate :
 Literacy Rate
  Males
  Females
 Up to 25.00 %
--
18
 25.01 % to 50.00 %
22
243
 50.01% to 75.00 %
244
287
 Above 75 %
327
45
 Total :
593
593
Work Participation Rate :
Total Workers
Number
Rate (%)
Persons
402,234,724
39.1
Males
275,014,476
51.7
Females
127,220,248
25.6
Main Workers
Persons
313,004,983
30.4
Males
240,147,813
45.1
Females
72,857,170
14.7
Marginal Workers
Persons
89,229,741
8.7
Males
34,866,663
6.6
Females
54,363,078
11
Religious Composition
Population *
(%)
Hindus
827,578,868
80.5
Muslims
138,188,240
13.4
Christians
24,080,016
2.3
Sikhs
19,215,730
1.9
Buddhists
7,955,207
0.8
Jains
4,225,053
0.4
Other Religions & Persuasions
6,639,626
0.6
Religion not stated
727,588
0.1
Total *
1,028,610,328
100.0


Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Population:
Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes Population
Scheduled Castes :
166,635,700
16.2%
Scheduled Tribes :
84,326,240
8.2%
Scheduled Castes
State with highest proportion of Scheduled Castes
Punjab ( 28.9 %)
State with lowest proportion of Scheduled Castes
Mizoram ( 0.03 %)
UT with highest proportion of Scheduled Castes
Chandigarh (17.5%)
UT with lowest proportion of Scheduled Castes
D & N Haveli (1.9% )
District with highest proportion of Scheduled Castes
Koch-Bihar (50.1%)
District with lowest proportion of Scheduled Castes
Lawngtlai Mizoram (0.01%)
Scheduled Tribes
State with highest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
Mizoram ( 94.5 % )
State with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
Goa (0.04 %)
UT with highest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
Lakshadweep (94.5 %)
UT with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
A & N Islands (8.3 %)
District with highest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
Sarchhip, Mizoram ( 98.1%)
District with lowest proportion of Scheduled Tribes
Hathras, Uttar Pradesh (0.01%)

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